Gum Disease and Bone Loss

Annual Bone & Joint Section

Without intervention, poor oral health habits can lead to a host of unpleasant side effects like decreasing bone density and tooth loss.

By Lucy Morris


What Is Gum Disease?

Also referred to as periodontal disease, gum disease is an infection of the areas that surround your teeth. There are three stages associated with gum disease that range in severity, and symptoms can include swollen, red, tender, or bleeding gums; bad breath; gum recession; and more. The most common and least severe stage is gingivitis, followed by periodontitis and advanced periodontitis. By the time you reach periodontitis, you will begin to experience bone loss in the jaw.


Gum Disease and Bone Loss

Your gums act as protectors for your teeth. If you aren’t taking proper care of your oral hygiene, there’s a high likelihood you’ll develop advanced gum disease over time. With this, bacteria grow and spread, causing your gums to pull away from your teeth. This new space serves as a breeding ground for infections, which can attack connective tissue and bone that stands in their way. Eventually, this deterioration will reach your jawbone and the tissues that hold your teeth in place, and tooth loss will be imminent.

Unfortunately, tooth loss isn’t the only issue associated with gum disease you need to worry about. When an infection damages bone density in the jaw, it can affect your facial structure and may even make it difficult for you to eat or speak. It can also create fit issues with dentures and make oral surgery riskier.


Treating Gum Disease

Depending on the type and severity of the disease, there are many different treatment options. One nonsurgical option is called scaling and root planing. With this method, your dentist will use a tool to remove plaque and tartar from your teeth and root surfaces and smooth away roughness so the gums can reattach themselves to the teeth. In more severe cases, surgical options like pocket reduction or gum grafts may be necessary.


Preventing Gum Disease

The best way to prevent gum disease is to embrace a positive oral hygiene routine. Brushing twice a day and flossing are the first lines of defense against dental plaque. Additionally, visiting your dentist every six months will cut down your risk of disease. He or she can eliminate plaque in areas your toothbrush alone cannot reach. HS


Dr. Mandy Shearer Dentist Soddy Daisy smiles gives expert advice on gum disease and bone loss